# Grade 4

# Grade 4 Language Arts

Fourth graders begin to go into depth as they describe characters and setting. They often are asked to go back and find a more precise word or add descriptive adjectives as they delve into a character’s feelings. This is the year they begin to work on bigger projects, such as research papers.

Your student will:

- discuss the themes of stories, poems and plays;
- compare stories from different cultures;
- use evidence to support reports;
- understand charts, graphs, timelines, and illustrations;
- build a strong vocabulary;
- participate in class discussions;
- give presentations to the class;
- write stories with dialogue and description;
- learn to take proper academic notes;
- learn to organize information from a number of sources;
- learn to pace writing projects; and
- write research and opinion papers.

COMMON CORE EXPECTATIONS

- determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem;
- write a summary of a story;
- describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text;
- determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text;
- explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose;
- know the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions);
- compare and contrast the point of view, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations;
- make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text;
- compare and contrast the treatment of themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures;
- read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently;
- describe chronology, cause/effect, and problem/solution of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text;
- compare and contrast a first-hand and second-hand accounts of the same event;
- interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text;
- integrate information from two texts on the same topic;
- know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words;
- read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension;
- use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and meaning, rereading as necessary;
- write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information;
- introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the purpose;
- link opinion and reasons using transitions (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition);
- link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because);
- use precise language;
- write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences;
- orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters;
- use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations;
- provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events;
- use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others;
- demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single setting;
- conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic;
- recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources;
- write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences;
- engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. Review the key ideas expressed and participate in a civil discussion;
- paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- use audio recordings and visual displays when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes;
- differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion);
- use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why);
- use progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
- use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions;
- order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag);
- form and use prepositional phrases;
- produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences;
- correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their);
- understand capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing;
- spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed;
- use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph);
- consult reference materials;
- demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings;
- explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors; and
- recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs; demonstrate understanding of antonyms and synonyms.

# Grade 4 Math

Grade 4 students focus multi-digit multiplication and division, fractions, and geometric figures.

Your student will:

- use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems;
- use place value understanding to resolve multi-digit problems;
- understand fractions;
- learn about and compare decimals to fractions;
- solve problems involving measurements;
- convert measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit;
- interpret data;
- understand angles; and
- classify shapes by lines and angles.

COMMON CORE EXPECTATIONS

- interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5;
- use drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplication from addition;
- solve multi-step word problems using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted;
- use estimation strategies including rounding;
- find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100;
- recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors;
- determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number;
- determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite;
- generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule;
- identify features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself;
- recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right;
- read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form;
- compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons;
- use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place;
- fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers; multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/ or area models;
- find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models;
- understand and use fractions with denominators of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100;
- explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions;
- compare two fractions with different numerators and different
- denominators;
- understand addition and subtraction of fractions;
- decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition using an equation;
- add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators;
- solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions;
- learn the multiplication of fractions;
- express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100;
- use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100;
- compare two decimals to hundredths;
- know relative sizes of measurement within one system of units, including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec;
- read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals,
- number names, and expanded form;
- find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit
- dividends and one-digit divisors;
- understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.
- understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
- decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8;
- add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators;
- solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions;
- apply and extend previous understanding of multiplication to
- understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4),recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4);
- understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number;
- solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number;
- express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100;
- learn decimal notations for fractions with denominators 10 or 100;
- compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size and record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model;
- know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec;
- use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale;
- apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems;
- make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots;
- recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement;
- measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor;
- sketch angles of specified measure;
- recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts.
- solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems;
- draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures;
- classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles; and
- recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.